J Cancer 2020; 11(11):3235-3245. doi:10.7150/jca.42341 This issue
1. Department of Musculoskeletal Oncology Center, The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, 58 Zhongshan 2 nd Rd, Guangzhou 510080, China.
2. Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Guangzhou 510080, China.
3. Department of Anesthesiology, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, 651 Dongfengdong Rd, Guangzhou 510060, China.
* These authors have contributed equally to this work.
Aim: Osteosarcoma is one of the most prevalent primary bone malignancies in children and adolescents. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been considered a very critical tool to provide anatomical information of tumor and surrounding main blood vessels. To evaluate the prognostic significance of the radiological vascular involvement according to the pre-treatment MRI in patients with Enneking IIB osteosarcoma.
Methods: In this retrospective study, we included 482 patients younger than 50 years old with Enneking IIB primary osteosarcoma of the extremities with complete clinical records from 2005 to 2015.Univariate and multivariable analyses were conducted to identify the risk factors for OS (Overall survival) and EFS (Event-free survival). The correlations between the risk factors was performed using Spearman analysis. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to calculate survival curves. Based on the radiological relationship between the tumor lesion and the surrounding reactive area with the main blood vessels as shown on pretreatment MRI findings.
Results: Radiological vascular involvement assessed via pretreatment MRI is an important risk factor for Enneking IIB primary patients with osteosarcoma (HROS=2.32/HREFS=1.81 P<0.01) according to the univariate and multivariable analyses. Enneking IIB patients with osteosarcoma were assigned to three subtypes based on the radiological relationship between the main blood vessels and the lesion or reactive area. The 5-year cumulative OS of patients classified by the three types were 81.6% (type I), 67.1% (type II) and 44.8% (type III)(P<0.01). The 5-year cumulative EFS of the three types were 60.2% (type I), 46.7% (type II) and 30.2% (type III)(P<0.05). The total 5-year cumulative OS and EFS for all patients were 68.3% and 48.3%, respectively.
Conclusion: Vascular involvement according to radiological findings from pretreatment MRI is an independent risk factor for cumulative OS and EFS in patients with Enneking IIB primary osteosarcoma of the extremities. The new subtyping based on the relationship between the tumors and surrounding reactive area with the main blood vessels based on pretreatment MRI can predict the prognosis of patients with osteosarcoma and provide certain directive information for selecting the appropriate surgical procedure for individual patients.
Keywords: Osteosarcoma, Enneking ⅡB, Reactive Area, Risk Factor, Radiological Vascular Involvement