1. Department of Pathology, Hackensack Meridian School of Medicine, Nutley, NJ, USA
2. Tumor Immunology Laboratory, Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, UCLA School of Dentistry and Medicine, Los Angeles, CA, USA
3. Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Changhua Christian Hospital, Changhua, Taiwan
4. Department of Pathology, Chinese PLA General Hospital 7 th Medical Center, Beijing, China
5. II ND Department of Gynecology, Lublin Medical University, Lublin, Poland
6. Pulmonary-Oncology Department, "Theageneio" Cancer Hospital, Thessaloniki, Greece
7. Laboratory of Biological Effects of Non-Ionizing Radiation, Institute of Cell Biophysics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Russian Federation
8. Section of Pathological Anatomy, Polytechnic University of the Marche Region, School of Medicine, United Hospitals, Ancona, Italy.
9. Department of Pathology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA.
10. Department of Pathology, New York Harbor Healthcare System, New York, NY, USA.
11. Department of Morphological Sciences, Cordoba University Medical School, Cordoba, Spain
12. Molecular Medicine and Cell Therapy Foundation, Department of Clinical & Molecular Sciences, Polytechnic University of the Marche Region, Ancona, Italy
13. Medical Oncology, IRCCS Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria di Bologna, Bologna, Italy
14. Department of Biological Sciences, Boler-Parseghian Center for Rare and Neglected Diseases, Harper Cancer Research Institute, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN, USA.
15. Tumor Microenvironment and Metastasis Program, Indiana University Melvin and Bren Simon Comprehensive Cancer Center, Indianapolis, IN, USA.
16. Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Brown University Medical School | Lifespan Academic Medical Center, RI, USA.
Over the past two decades, the global efforts for the early detection and intervention of prostate cancer seem to have made significant progresses in the basic researches, but the clinic outcomes have been disappointing: (1) prostate cancer is still the most common non-cutaneous cancer in Europe in men, (2) the age-standardized prostate cancer rate has increased in nearly all Asian and African countries, (3) the proportion of advanced cancers at the diagnosis has increased to 8.2% from 3.9% in the USA, (4) the worldwide use of PSA testing and digital rectal examination have failed to reduce the prostate cancer mortality, and (5) there is still no effective preventive method to significantly reduce the development, invasion, and metastasis of prostate cancer… Together, these facts strongly suggest that the global efforts during the past appear to be not in a correlated target with markedly inconsistent basic research and clinic outcomes. The most likely cause for the inconsistence appears due to the fact that basic scientific studies are traditionally conducted on the cell lines and animal models, where it is impossible to completely reflect or replicate the in vivo status. Thus, we would like to propose the human prostate basal cell layer (PBCL) as “the most effective target for the early detection and intervention of prostate cancer”. Our proposal is based on the morphologic, immunohistochemical and molecular evidence from our recent studies of normal and cancerous human prostate tissues with detailed clinic follow-up data. We believe that the human tissue-derived basic research data may provide a more realistic roadmap to guide the clinic practice and to avoid the potential misleading from in vitro and animal studies.
Keywords: Prostate basal cell layer, Tumor capsule, Cancer early detection and intervention.