1. Department of Neurology, Union Hospital, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, China.
2. Shengli Clinical Medical College of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, 350001, China.
3. Department of Urology, Fujian Provincial Hospital, Fuzhou, 350001, Fujian, China.
4. Department of Urology, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.
5. College of Biological Science and Engineering, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350108, China.
Objective: We retrospectively studied cancer mortality and incidence in China from 1990 to 2019, investigated the cancer trends and risk factors, and analyzed the effects of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) on cancer mortality and incidence.
Methods: Data was obtained in "Our world in data" in October 2022 to explore mortality rates of different cancers and their trends and the roles of cancer risk factors, including GDP, air pollution, etc.
Results: Over the past 30 years, cancer had been China's second leading cause of death. Tracheal, bronchial, and lung cancers, with an annual growth rate of 6.5%, were the most frequently diagnosed cancers. The burden of different cancers changed as the mortality rate of cancer changed. The age-standardized cancer mortality rate had decreased by 19.0%; cancer deaths in all age groups had increased. While the number of cancer deaths in the elderly aged ≥70 did not increase distinctively, its percentage increased by 52.1% and 1.7% annually. The percentage of patients with new-onset cancer increased by 240% and 8.6% annually. For every USD 1,000 increase in GDP, cancer deaths decreased by 2.3/100,000. Tobacco, meat, and alcohol consumption and BMI had increased and were not conducive to the future control of cancer.
Conclusions: We summarized the incidence and mortality of major cancers and their trends in China over the past 30 years and analyzed the effects of GDP and the roles of cancer risk factors. Overall GDP growth and effective control of air pollution reduced cancer mortality, while population aging, smoking, alcohol consumption, BMI increasing, and meat consumption brought challenges for cancer control.
Keywords: Cancer trends, risk factor, China, cancer mortality, cancer control, GDP